Published by the Colong Foundation for Wilderness Ltd (September 1999)
2/332 Pitt Street Sydney NSW 2000 ph 02 9261 2400; fax 02 9261 2144
email keith@colongwilderness.org.au web site colongwilderness.org.au


Macleay Gorges (Oxley or Apsley)


The Wilderness Society (Armidale Branch), 10 April 1990. Additions nominated by Colong Foundation, Confederation of Bushwalking Clubs, National Parks Association and The Wilderness Society 23/10/96 and 15/5/97.


15 km south east of Armidale and 100 km north of Kempsey.


146,232 ha (nominated 1990)
165,392 ha (identified 1992)
11,664 ha (nominated additions 1996/97)
177,056 ha (total of identified and nominated additions)


Nominated Identified
Existing NPWS estate
(Oct. 1993)
Oxley Wild Rivers National Park 81,137 ha 90,833 ha
Oxley Wild Rivers NP (96 nom) 10 ha under assessment
Georges Creek Nature Reserve 1,102 ha under assessment

New NPWS estate (Oct. 1993 to Sept. 1999)
Former Winterbourne State Forest 0 ha 3,410 ha
Former Enmore State Forest 465 ha 1,075 ha
Former Styx River S F (96/97 nom) 3,588 ha under assessment
Former Carrai State Forest (96/97 nom) 1,654 ha under assessment
Former Vacant Crown lands 570 ha 570 ha
Former leasehold land 11,578 ha 15,394 ha

Other tenure
Styx River State Forest 87 ha 87 ha
Styx River State Forest (96/97 nom) 3,284 ha under assessment
Crown land 312 ha 90 ha
Leasehold land 45,672 ha 46,167 ha
Leasehold land (96/97 nom) 26 ha under assessment
Freehold land 6,391 ha 7,766 ha
Freehold land (96/97 nom) 2,020 ha under assessment

Wilderness Declared:

Macleay Gorges Wilderness;

Size of 1992 id area and 96/97 nom:

58,095 ha

Percentage of entire area:


Kunderang Wilderness (part),

Size of 1992 id area and 96/97 nom:

10,300 ha

Percentage of entire area:


Wilderness Not Declared:

Oxley Wild Rivers National Park;

Size of 1992 id area and 96/97 nom:

37,876 ha

Percentage of entire area:


Cunnawarra National Park;

Size of 1992 id area and 96/97 nom:

3,588 ha

Percentage of entire area:


Carrai National Park;

Size of 1992 id area and 96/97 nom:

1,401 ha

Percentage of entire area:


Georges Creek Nature Reserve;

Size of 1992 id area and 96/97 nom:

1,102 ha

Percentage of entire area:


NPWS owned lands;

Size of 1992 id area and 96/97 nom:

7,300 ha

Percentage of entire area:


Styx River State Forest;

Size of 1992 id area and 96/97 nom:

3,284 ha

Percentage of entire area:


Crown land;

Size of 1992 id area and 96/97 nom:

90 ha

Percentage of entire area:


Leasehold land;

Size of 1992 id area and 96/97 nom:

46,167 ha

Percentage of entire area:


Freehold land;

Size of 1992 id area and 96/97 nom:

7,853 ha

Percentage of entire area:



Located on the eastern fall of the Northern Tablelands, the Macleay Gorges Wilderness incorporates the spectacular rugged gorges of the Apsley and Macleay River systems, as well as fringing plateau areas. The Macleay and Apsley Rivers have developed deeply incised river valleys into Ordovician meta-sedimentary rocks including greywacke, slate, phyllite, schist, chert and argillites. Around the perimeter of the gorges are a series of granite bodies intruding the meta-sediments. Associated with these deep gorges are numerous waterfalls. Drops of 150 m are common, with the largest single drop being 470 m at Wollomombi Falls, the highest in Australia. Relief ranges from 1,000 m on the plateau, to 200 m on the lower Macleay River.

The flora of the Macleay Gorges Wilderness is rich, with more than 700 native plant species recorded. Within the three broad biophysical units that comprise the area - tableland, gorge and coastal escarpment - 26 land systems have been identified. These land systems contain 32 plant associations comprising dry rainforest, tall open forest, open forest, woodland and sclerophyll shrubland.

On the tableland eleven different communities are recognised, consisting predominantly of eucalypt tall open forest, open forest and woodland. Most are poorly conserved communities that were formerly widespread on the adjoining section of the Northern Tablelands, but which have now been largely cleared for grazing.

On the gorge rim a further seven communities are distinguished, ranging from eucalypt open forest and woodland, to mallee and mixed sclerophyllous shrubland. These communities contain a high percentage of rare and endangered plant species or species with limited distributions.

The gorge slopes are characterised by grassy woodland with open forest on sheltered aspects and an abundance of dry rainforest pockets, with four types distinguished. These rainforests are floristically distinct from the dry rainforest found in other wilderness areas on the Great Escarpment. They are dominated by Shatterwood (Backhousia sciadophora) and Native Olive (Olea paniculata) and contain over 187 plant species.

Seventeen species of native plant found within the wilderness are rare or endangered, and a further 30 are of botanical significance. Rare plants found in the wilderness, include Grevillia obtusiflora, an undescribed eucalypt, Hillgrove box (Eucalyptus sp.) and the Wollomombi wattle.

The Macleay Gorges Wilderness contains a diverse and abundant fauna. A total of 268 species of vertebrates have been recorded within and immediately adjoining the wilderness. They comprise 173 birds, 47 mammals, 31 reptiles and 17 amphibians Many species are at their distributional limits in the wilderness area. Twelve species listed as threatened under the Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995 are found in the wilderness area consisting of: five mammals (Brush-tailed Phascogale, Brush-tailed Rock Wallaby, Koala, Squirrel Glider and Tiger Quoll); four birds (Glossy Black Cockatoo, Sooty Owl, Superb Fruit Dove and Turquoise Parrot); one reptile (Carpet Python); and two frogs (Litoria piperata and Litoria subglandulosa). The wilderness is home to the Macleay tortoise, a recently discovered species, and the rare mammal, the Hastings River Mouse, considered to be in imminent danger of extinction.

The Macleay Gorges Wilderness includes three wild river systems These are the Apsley-Yarrowitch wild river system with an aggregate length of 130 km; the Macleay-Chandler wild river system with an aggregate length of 170 km; and the Styx River system with a length of 23 km.



The Macleay/Apsley Gorges fall within the modern tribal area of the Dangaddi people, whose descendants are now concentrated in the lower Macleay River.

Archeological evidence of large camp sites is found on the upper terraces of the Macleay River. Smaller, transit, camps are found on the ridges above the river. Approximately forty locations of stone tool manufacture are found within 100m of the river bed. Some marked trees have been found and a limestone cave shelter 1,700 years old has been excavated near Kunderang Brook

European Settlement


Explorer John Oxley tries to descend into the Apsley Valley, but steep scree slopes block the way.


The Macleay and Apsley valleys become a stock route between the New England Tableland and the coast, encroaching into the Danggadi's land. Rough grazing has continued in the Macleay Gorges since then, with mustering points (yards and huts) occurring at Top Creek, Middle Yard and Front Tableland.

Late 1880's

The original Kunderang Station, taken up by Captain George Jobling and others in 1842 as an outstation. The lease passed through Standish Callaghan in 1853, TS Mort in 1856 then the Hill family. The property passed to Eliza Crawford in 1869 who subdivided and sold East Kunderang to Alec McDonell and Joseph Fitzgerald in 1889 under the Subdivision of Runs Act 1884. The reminder, West Kunderang, was sold in 1900 to George Waller. The Fitzgeralds retained East Kunderang until the 1960's when it passed to the Kellions and then the National Parks and Wildlife Service (NPWS) in 1989.

Late 1960's

Road and power lines established to East Kunderang Station.


1 May: Crown Lands (Continued Tenures) Act 1989 comes into effect enabling leasehold lands to be converted to freehold at original capital value. This overturns the previous conservation policy of the Department of Lands which gave NPWS power to reject conversion application. The legislation would enable the conversion of the 62,692 ha of leasehold land in the Macleay Gorges Wilderness.

18 July: Former Premier, Mr Nick Greiner, places moratorium on leasehold conversion.


March: Moratorium lifted on 40% of properties subject to NPWS objections. No lease within Apsley/Macleay Gorge areas converted, but one or two on plateau may have been converted.


7 May: The Former Minister for Conservation and Land Management, the Hon Gary West, announces the lifting of the moratorium on converting Crown leasehold land to freehold.

19 May: Parliament resolves that "this house, as a matter of urgency, directs the Government to immediately reinstate the moratorium on further conversions of Crown leasehold lands where any agency has notified an interest in these lands, until such time as the Parliament has had time to consider a bill in detail which provides permanent protection from sale of Crown leasehold lands with certain values." The resolution temporarily prevents the disposal of 62,692 ha of leasehold land in the Macleay Gorges Wilderness.



W B Clarke notes antimony ore in the Backer's Creek area.


First payable ore taken from Sunlight Mine in Backer's Creek Gorge. In 1880's mining diversifies with gold and tungsten ore also being mined. Mining continues at Hillgrove and Halls Peak fields, but production has fallen ever since 1900.


The Crown Lands in the Halls Peak area are obstructed from addition to Oxley Wild Rivers National Park by the Department of Mineral Resources due to claimed gold resource potential.



The N.S.W. Electricity Commission proposes to build a large pumped storage scheme on the Apsley River to supply electricity for peak energy demand periods. Late 1981 Elcom bulldoze a track to the Apsley River and install a river gauging station. The project is shelved following a land use study recommending a major national park be established.


The most recent in a string of proposed hydro-electric schemes was raised for the upper Styx River Gorge. While outside the wilderness, this proposal would have impacted on the substantial wild river values of the Macleay Gorges through regulation of natural flow regimes. The proposal was rejected and the area rezoned to preclude this type of development by the Local Government.



Georges Creek Nature Reserve is dedicated in the north end of the wilderness.


The Apsley Gorge National Park of 6,718 hectares gazetted The 3,456 hectare Yarrowitch Gorge National Park is gazetted soon after.


The Hon Neville Wran announces NSW Government's firm commitment to establishment of Oxley Wild Rivers National Park in the Macleay - Apsley gorge area.


10 August: The Hon Nick Greiner announces East Kunderang Station acquisition of 30,400 hectares as an addition to the National Park.


20 January: a 2,637 ha acquisition is gazetted as part of Oxley Wild Rivers National Park.

17 March: the East Kunderang acquisition of 30,400 ha is gazetted as part of the park.

15 September: A 9,420 ha acquisition is gazetted as part of the park.

27 October: A 373 ha acquisition is gazetted as part of the park.


6 April: The Wilderness Society (TWS) (Armidale Branch) submits a nomination for a 146,232 ha Macleay Gorges Wilderness.

28 September: A 1,250 ha acquisition is gazetted as part of the park.


13 February: Macleay Gorges Wilderness is included in Terry Metherell's Wilderness (Declaration of New Areas) Bill Following Metherell's resignation from Parliament, the bill lapses with the close of Parliament at the end of the year.

9 April: In response to the Metherell Wilderness Bill, the Minister for Environment Tim Moore, announces on 9/4/92, a public exhibition and submission process from 18/5/92 to 18/9/92 for an NPWS assessment report of the nominated wilderness (and similarly with different dates for twenty two other wilderness areas in NSW).

April: National Parks and Wildlife Service release Macleay Gorges Wilderness Assessment Report, identifying 165,392 ha as wilderness and recommending its declaration. This report also recommends that those portions of the Apsley-Yarrowitch, Macleay-Chandler and Styx River systems, within the identified wilderness, be declared as wild and scenic rivers under the provisions of Section 61 of the National Parks and Wildlife Act 1974.

The Macleay Gorges Wilderness was placed under the moratorium provisions of Schedule 2 of the Timber Industry (Interim Protection) Act 1992 (TI(IP) Act) until the environmental impact statements for Kempsey, Styx River and Walcha-Nundle Forest Management Areas are determined by the Minister for Planning. Schedule 3 of the TI(IP) Act requires that the Director General of the National Parks and Wildlife Service advise the Minister for the Environment regarding the Macleay Gorges Wilderness by 30 April 1994.


23 December: Fahey Government announces approximately 94,245 ha is to be declared as the Macleay Gorges Wilderness.


2 March: Premier Fahey announces that a further assessment process for wilderness declaration is needed and that the Surveyor-General be involved in investigating wilderness boundaries already defined by NPWS. Director General of Cabinet commissions the Surveyor-General to investigate Deua, Macleay Gorges and Goodradigbee wilderness areas. Report expected to be tabled in Parliament on May 27.

24 March: Minister for Planning allows logging over a ten year period, affecting 207,887 ha of state forests and 93,372 ha of other Crown Lands in the Kempsey and Wauchope Forest Management Areas. The identified New England, Werrikimbe and Macleay Gorges wilderness areas, all of which contain substantial old growth forests, will be logged under this development consent.

9 September: Premier Fahey announces his final determination of new areas to be gazetted as wilderness. In a reversal of the announcement of December 1993, the nomination of Macleay Gorges was rejected in an attempt to placate the right wing independent Member for Tamworth, Tony Windsor.

22 September: Bob Carr, Leader of the Opposition, censures the Premier for breaching his promises on wilderness and commits NSW Labor to the declaration of twelve new wilderness areas, including the Macleay Gorges.


May: Labor Government ceases logging in all NPWS identified wilderness areas.

August: Macleay Gorges Wilderness is placed on public exhibition for a second time.


12 April: Government declares 50,000 ha of Oxley Wild Rivers National Park as wilderness. Enmore and Winterbourne State Forests are not declared, pending the outcome of the forest Interim Assessment Process (IAP).

June: The Draft Interim Forestry Assessment Report is released by the Government Resource and Conservation Assessment Council (RACAC). As part of this process a desktop assessment of potential wilderness in eastern NSW is undertaken. Areas outside the existing NPWS identified wilderness boundaries are termed Provisionally Identified Wilderness (PIW). Some 4,935 ha in Styx River State Forest, 841 ha Carrai State Forest and 10 ha of Oxley Wild Rivers National Park is provisionally identified through this process as additions to Macleay Gorges Wilderness.

September: The Government announces the addition of 1,850 ha of Winterbourne State Forest to the wilderness. The remaining 1,560 ha of Winterbourne and 1,075 ha of Enmore State Forests are to be added to the National Park. The Government also announces the establishment of the Dunphy Wilderness Fund of one million dollars per year over 5 years for the acquisition of leasehold and freehold lands in identified wilderness.

23 October: Nomination under section 7 of the Wilderness Act 1987 submitted by Colong Foundation, Confederation of Bushwalking Clubs and TWS for 19 Provisionally Identified Wilderness areas or additions, through the Forestry Interim Assessment Process (IAP). This covers the Brittle Gum addition, incorporating 1,654 ha of Carrai State Forest and 10 ha of the National Park; and the Styx River addition, incorporating about 4,872 ha of Styx River State Forest.

November: The Forestry Revocation Act 1996 is passed by State Parliament, adding 4,485 ha of the identified wilderness to Oxley Wild Rivers National Park.


Subsequent to the 1996 interim forest park creations, the Government establishes the Occupational Permit fund of 3.7 million dollars which targets 17 leasehold or freehold properties for acquisition as a compensatory measure to landholders whose occupational grazing permits were in areas gazetted as new National Parks. This schedule includes one property in the Macleay Gorges.

15 May: The nominating groups and the National Parks Association (NPA) submit to the NPWS amendments and additions to the October wilderness nominations, including a further 2,000 ha of Styx River State Forest, the Georges River Nature Reserve (1,102 ha), and an additional 2,000 ha of freehold and 26 ha leasehold land.

30 September: 1,639 ha of leasehold land in the Green Gully Creek headwaters is acquired under the Dunphy fund.

8 December: 1,439 ha of leasehold land in the lower Chandlers River gorge is acquired under the Dunphy fund.


June: Minister for the Environment the Hon Pam Allan declares 3,400 ha of additions to Macleay Gorges Wilderness, as announced in September 1996.

December: The Forestry and National Park Estate Act 1998 is passed by State Parliament, creating Cunnawarra and Carrai National Parks, and protecting around 5,100 ha of the nominated additions in reserves. Mineral objections and underlying grazing leases prevent the reservation of 693 ha of Styx River State Forest in the Top Creek catchment. A temporary logging moratorium is imposed on this area.


27 January: A 5,032 ha leasehold and freehold property is acquired under the Dunphy Fund in the Green Gully Creek area.

26 February: Part of the Macleay Gorges identified Wilderness is gazetted as a 10,300 ha addition to the Kunderang Wilderness Area. The wilderness addition is separated from the rest of the Macleay Wilderness by a 20 metre easement for the Bicentennial (horseriding) National Trail, seriously fragmenting the wilderness area.

12 March: The Government gazettes the former leasehold property on Muddy Creek as part of the National Park and declares 1,250 ha as an addition to the wilderness

19 March: The Government commits to assessment and public exhibition of the nominated Macleay Gorges additions by the end of 1999, and determination of the area for declaration by the end of 2000.

20 March: The Carr Government commits to fund the Dunphy Wilderness Fund beyond its anticipated expiry in 2001 and maintains a logging moratorium over wilderness leasehold lands, including leasehold State Forest areas.

23 March: Carr Government confirms previous logging moratorium on Crown leasehold lands that have been identified as wilderness by the NPWS.


Clearing and Lease Conversion

A major threat to the Macleay Gorges Wilderness is the conversion of leasehold land to freehold. On 18 July 1990 the then Premier of NSW announced a moratorium on conversion of leasehold land to freehold in wilderness areas. There are around 22 Crown leaseholds within the proposed additions to the Oxley Wild Rivers National Park, covering over 44,000 ha. Applications for conversion had been lodged for 11 of these leases. As a result of objections by the National Parks and Wildlife Service for 10 of these leases, no lease within the Apsley/Macleay Gorge areas has been converted since the imposition of the moratorium. Conversion of leasehold land to freehold, both within the wilderness area and in adjoining areas, makes control of adverse impacts more difficult. Further it will increase the cost of future protection of the wilderness.

Recommendations: No further clearing licences should be issued in the area. In order to prevent clearing, the steep gorge and the adjoining environmentally sensitive plateau areas should be mapped as Protection Lands under the provisions of the Soil Conservation Act.

All permissive occupancies in the park and wilderness areas should be cancelled immediately. Terminating Crown Leases and Special Leases should not be renewed on expiry. In the meantime stock numbers on these leases should not exceed the carrying capacity of the unimproved land.

Freehold and perpetual Crown leasehold tenure within the wilderness and national park proposal should be voluntarily acquired by the NPWS under the Dunphy Fund for nature conservation and wilderness preservation purposes. As a short term measure, voluntary wilderness conservation agreements should be negotiated between the landowner and the NPWS. Local government may also assist in the protection of undeclared wilderness by zoning these areas "environmental protection" and thereby prevent speculative subdivision. A notice should be placed on land title deeds that requires the NPWS to be notified of any sale of these lands.


Continued cattle grazing has brought considerable changes to native vegetation, including weed infestation, notably khaki weed and Noogoora burr, and selective grazing of native pasture. The weeds occur particularly along bridle paths between the tableland and the rivers below. Feral cattle, goats and pigs are a problem in the wilderness. In contravention to lease conditions, some local landholders continue to bulldoze fire trails and access tracks to the valley floor within the wilderness core.

Recommendations: The feral animals should be controlled by shooting. It should be noted however, that dingos should be treated as native animals as this animal was introduced at least 10,000 years ago and the native fauna have can survive in its presence. Weeds, including all exotic plants, should be removed by appropriate bush regeneration methods. Leaseholders who breach lease conditions should have their leases reviewed, with primary consideration given to the interests and concerns of the National Parks and Wildlife Service.

4WD and

The area has received limited four wheel drive use along fire trails. The Bicentennial National (horseriding) Trail follows the Macleay River and Kunderang Brook, traversing areas of existing disturbance. The environmental impacts of horse-riding include the introduction of exotic weed species through faeces and feed, the trampling of vegetation, erosion; and pollution.

The Elcom Road into the Apsley Gorge was opened to vehicle use as a concession to the declaration of the wilderness in April 1996. This allows vehicular intrusion into the wilderness and possibly along the Apsley River. Other trails within wilderness which receive vehicular usage include: Haydons fire trail (13km); Kunderang East Road (16km); and parts of the Raspberry Track (16km). A further concession was made in the declaration of the Kunderang Wilderness addition by creating an easement for the Bicentennial (horseriding) National Trail.

Recommendations: No four wheel drive vehicles or horseriding should be permitted within the wilderness. The National Trail should be redirected to pass around the wilderness and the Elcom Road closed to public access The other trails should be progressively closed and revegetated as the remaining inholdings are acquired.


Over-burning causes severe damage to rugged wilderness catchments. The ground cover that binds the soil is burnt leading to massive sheet erosion, as the next rains will strip away the thin soils of the area. Streams then fill with gravel and silt. Fires also a wipe out fauna populations and destroy the old growth vegetation. Often it is these very oldest plants that provide most of the nesting and roosting places. The assertion that Australia’s forest lands were once all some sort of grass land, and that they should be burnt more often to mirror Aboriginal burning practices, is incorrect. Dr John Benson is adamant that "most forests and woodlands of Australia would not have been subject to frequent (less than ten-year) burns".

A number of fire trails are included within the wilderness. The environmental impacts of trails on wilderness areas include: rubbish dumping; soil compaction and erosion; weed introduction and dissemination by NPWS and other vehicles; facilitation of dispersal and foraging by feral animals; enabling arsonists to light fires in remote areas; and other adverse environmental impacts associated with off-road vehicle use and horseriding.

Recommendations: Maintenance of management trails in wilderness areas does not comply with the management principles laid down in the Wilderness Act. The existing trails serve little purpose and should be rehabilitated. The wilderness area is currently surrounded by perimeter trails and these should be adequate for fire management purposes. The best prescription to manage fires in wilderness areas is to confine management trails to the edge of the national park and prevent the spread of fire into the wilderness. Where a fire occurs within a wilderness area it should be dealt with by remote area techniques or, if the risks are too great for this direct approach, control should be exercised from the relative safety of the perimeter trails.

The protection of wilderness values in fire management plans needs to be a priority. Existing perimeter management trails can also be used to prevent fire spreading from the wilderness to adjoining areas Effective fire-fighting in wilderness requires constant aerial or satellite surveillance in bush-fire danger periods, to enable rapid detection and response. Such an approach eliminates the need for fire towers in wilderness areas. To effectively tackle fires in remote areas while they are still small, more fire fighters need to be trained as ‘smoke jumpers’ and helicopter crews.Where absolutely necessary, helicopter landing areas could be cleared for fire control.

During fire emergencies bulldozers should not be allowed to scar the scenery by cutting fire control lines on steep slopes. All too often these measures fail to contain a wildfire. Decisions on damaging suppression practices should be addressed during management planning, not in a fire crisis. Except for fire trails in perimeter areas, trails constructed during fire fighting operations should be closed and rehabilitated immediately following the operation.

East Kunderang Homestead

The NPWS presently promotes the Homestead on the former East Kunderang property for public accommodation. Vehicle access is provided through the identified wilderness for this purpose. This limits the northern and eastern extent of the possible wilderness declaration. If the areas currently under assessment are identified as wilderness additions, the building will be well within the boundaries.

Recommendations: Built accommodation is inappropriate in National Parks and Wilderness. The homestead should be managed as an historic ruin and access roads closed and revegetated.


Colong Foundation for Wilderness Ltd
2/332 Pitt Street
Contact: Keith Muir (Director) Ph: (w) 02 9261 2400
FAX: 02 9261 2144
e-mail keith@colongwilderness.org.au

North East Forest Alliance
C/- Big Scrub Environment Centre
123 Keen Street
Contact: Susie Russell Ph: (W) 02 66 213 278
Mob: 018 672 044
Fax: 02 6550 4433
e-mail gladneys@tpgi.com.au


L. J. Ferguson, Deputy Premier and Minister for Public Works & Ports. to J Angel, Assistant Director, Total Environment centre. 5 Mar 1982, Re: Dam proposal in Apsley Gorge.

P. Prineas, Exec. Officer of the National Parks Association of NSW to P. Landa. Minister for Energy & Water Resources. 12 August 1982, Re: Confirmation that the Electricity Commission will prepare a detailed study of energy generation alternatives instead of proceeding with an EIS.


Colong Bulletin, 116, "The Hon Tim Moore. Letters from the Minister", p 4-5.

Colong Bulletin, 131, March 1992, "The Wilderness (Declaration of New Areas) Bill", p 1.

Colong Bulletin, 133, July 1992, "Support the Wilderness Nominations", p 7.

Colong Bulletin, 134, September 1992, "National Trail Hoopla", p 7.

Colong Bulletin, 135, November 1992, "Crown Lands go West", p 9.

Colong Bulletin 142 January 1994 p10, "Forest Minister Ignores Premier over Wilderness Logging".

Colong Bulletin 144 May 1994 p7, "Surveyor General sets wilderness within his sights".

Colong Bulletin 147, November 1994, p5, "The Fahey Government’s Wildernesses".

Colong Bulletin 151, July 1995 p6, "Labor’s Wilderness Moratorium".

Colong Bulletin 156, May 1996 p8, "Wilderness Protection - Navigating the way forward".

Colong Bulletin 157, July 1996 p3, "Wilderness Protection Scheme".

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